The 41-gun salute for Her Majesty’s 76th birthday was performed by the King’s Troop Royal Horse Artillery Battery in Green Park, central London, at noon.
It was followed at 1pm by a 62-gun Royal Salute from Tower Wharf by the Honourable Artillery Company.
A rendition of Happy Birthday was performed by the Band of the Irish Guards during the Changing of the Guard at Buckingham Palace earlier in the day.
A total of 71 horses and riders rode from Hyde Park Corner to Green Park, pulling six First World War-era field guns into position for the salute.
On the word of command, each of the six guns fired blank artillery rounds at 10-second intervals until all 41 shots were fired. The Band of the Coldstream Guards performed during the event.
Members of the public were urged to avoid walking dogs in Green Park around the time of the gun salute, which can be ‘very loud and startling’ to the animals.
The Queen’s birthday was also celebrated on the official Twitter accounts of the royal family and the Prince and Princess of Wales.
Gun salutes are in the gift of the King, and the tribute is the first time Camilla’s birthday has been acknowledged by the military display.
It is her first birthday since being crowned Queen beside the King during the coronation service at Westminster Abbey on May 6.
Volleys are fired to mark royal births, weddings and the King’s official birthday, and his actual anniversary on November 14.
The Queen was last seen on Thursday during a visit to St Ives, in Cornwall, with the King, where they were cheered by waiting crowds.
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